Ah! Yes. Albert Einstein. The famous scientist and mathematician who’s last name I can never spell correctly! Yes. Today, I’m going to teach you about Albert Einstein. But not about him. I’m going to talk about his refrigerator.
What?! Albert Einstein invented a refrigerator! Yes. Why yes he did.
The Einstein–Szilard, or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator that has no moving parts, operates at constant pressure, and requires only a heat source to operate. Pretty cool, right?
Did you know? Albert Einstein was fascinated by what happened to a Berlin family who had been killed when a seal in their refrigerator failed and leaked toxic fumes into their home. Pretty strange reason to get fascinated, am I right? (But no one came blame Einstein. He changed our lives!)
Einstein’s refrigerator was patented in the 1930s and doesn’t use greenhouse gases and can be used without electricity! Do we still use it now? I have no idea!
Calculus. You might’ve heard it from someone, you might know it as some kind of math, but you might not know that Newton discovered it!
Many people know Isaac Newton for his discovery about his three law’s of motion, but he also invented calculus! I bet you didn’t know that! It impacted the world when he invented calculus in 1665. We take this for granted nowadays, but what Newton did hundreds of years ago is astonishing, considering now, many people take ages to learn it!
Calculus has uses in physics, chemistry, biology, economics, pure mathematics, all branches of engineering and much more!
Newton’s focus on gravity and laws of motion are linked to his breakthrough in calculus. Newton started by trying to recount the speed of a falling object. When he did, Newton found out that the rate of a falling object increases every second, but there was no currently existing mathematical explanation for this!
Newton immediately started working on this, and he figured out that when using calculus, he could explain it! So this is how Isaac Newton discovered calculus.
Okay. So who is this Ohm guy? His full name is Georg Ohm. (And yes. It’s spelled Georg. That’s not a typo. He has such a strange spelling name in my opinion. No offense Ohm!)
He was born on March 16, 1789, in the university town of Erlangen, Bavaria. His little brother, Martin Ohm, also became a famous mathematician! Johann Wolfgang Ohm, his father, was a locksmith. Maria Elizabeth Beck, his mother, was a daughter of a tailor. She died when Georg was ten.
“Ohm’s Law states that the current passing through a conductor is proportional to the voltage over the resistance,” says ducksters.com.
This may sound very confusing. I’m a little bit confused myself! But it can be written in a simple formula: I = V/R. I is currents in amps. V is voltage in volts. And R is resistance in ohms.
Voltage divided by current is resistance. Resistance times current equals voltage. Just like math. I don’t like math.
Hey! Ohm is not a thing. He’s a person! But an ohm CAN be defined as “an electrical resistance between two points of a conductor,” as said by Wikipedia.
So I guess when you say “ohm”, it could mean a person or a thing! Kinda like a noun. Haha.
Yes. Atoms. But what are atoms? Well, they make up everything! They’re made up of 3 teeny weeny particles: the proton, the neutron, and the electron.
The biggest idea from all time, is that stuff, is made, from atoms.
When the theory was proposed, it sounded absolutely insane! Nobody believed it! Now, nobody would run around shouting “Atoms are just a theory!” But not so long ago, people did do that. And you wanna know who settled it for good? Einstein.
Yes. The amazing scientist and mathematician. Of course it’s Einstein. Atoms had been theorized for a long time by the 20th century, but only when Einstein proved its existence in 1905 with amazing math skills (which I will never have), is when the matter was really settled.
Here’s the story about how the ancient Einstein found out about atoms. But it first started with a botanist.
In 1827, a botanist named Robert Brown was looking at pollen grains in water through a microscope and he noticed that they moved around even when there was no movement in the water to cause it! It was a mystery that lasted a really long time.
Until… In 1905, when Einstein theorized that this incident was caused by as to-be-proven atomic particles actually hitting into the grains of pollen. He wrote some fancy complicated math equation, proving that his theory predicted this motion almost perfectly, so everyone had to agree that yes, tiny bits of matter were really smacking into the pollen, and so atoms, had to exist.
Yes, a very interesting story indeed. I wonder how complicated Einstein’s math equation really was.
I-Beams. When you first hear it, you might think, “Oh, it’s a beam that’s shaped like an I!” Well, you are correct! I-Beams are used in many places. I-Beams are used in the structural steel construction industry. They are often used as the main support for trusses.
(Trusses means triangles.)
For our project this week, we’re supposed to make 2 beams: One of them is an I-Beam, and the other one is a beam of our own design.
On 9/23, I built my 2 I-Beams. One of them was longer, and the other one was shorter. I made both of them in the Zoom for extra help. (At the Zoom, I was eating my lunch, dumplings, but the teacher couldn’t see me. Tee-hee! But later, my longer one broke. Whoops.)
The second part of the project was to film a Flipgrid (an app) video, and you’re supposed to show you testing your beam.
My I-Beam withstood eight pounds before it collapsed. Pretty good, if I do say so myself. 🙂
I think that this project was super fun. You know, I actually made another beam to use as my main beam because my main beam was too short.
The first day of actually going to Scarsdale Middle School in person was really intimidating. I was so nervous when my mom dropped me off. She said: Don’t worry! You’ll be okay. Everyone is nervous on their first day. I knew that, but still, I was scared. But who isn’t? It’s a big transition from elementary school to middle school. The building is bigger, there’s more classes, more teachers, and most importantly, more homework. (This is what I’m most afraid of.)
I walk into the doorway on the upper circle, and ask a lot of teachers for help to find my homeroom. Finally, I get to my homeroom/science room. Dr. Williams was at his desk, and some other people were already there.
“Go to a desk with an iPad case on it.” Dr. Williams said, so I sat at the front row. How do I put on my iPad case? I wondered while awkwardly putting some of my things on my desk. I awkwardly looked around at all the people around. Wow, there are so many boys! How am I gonna survive?
Soon, class started. Dr. Williams introduced everyone, he helped me with putting on my iPad case (he said his thumbs are still sore from putting on the case), and I really enjoyed the class.
Next, we had technology. It was really interesting! Mr. Calvert talked about the Dee Bridge Incident, the 1986 Challenger Explosion, the Titanic, and how they all had the incident not because of the design, but because the choice of material.
Social Studies was a bit different. Ms. Castiello was zooming in from Zoom. It was a little bit echo-y because we also joined the Zoom from our iPads, but it was a really good class!
At the end of the day, I was so sad that I had to go home! School was already over! So sad 😥. (Yes, yes. I know. I enjoy school. Don’t judge. Humph.) I saw some of my friends while waiting for my mom to pick me up. We talked a little, but then my mom called me and I left.
Now, we’re on the final part: making our presentation. For me, it’s pretty simple considering I just have to make a slideshow with pictures and a few words. But some people are making movies/videos from iMovie, WeVideo, and Adobe Spark.
Answering my main inquiry question was not that hard, but not that easy. Making my script was nerve-wracking. I asked my mom for help on reducing my script, but she helped me get more information. I was scared that my script would end up longer than five minutes, because that’s the maximum time your presentation can be, but it was three minutes and thirty seconds! I was pretty surprised because my script was pretty long.
Overall, I think Capstone was a really good experience for me because I got to interview people, I got to work with deadlines, and it was just fun!
Yesterday, on June the second, I had my Capstone interview. I interviewed the EPA Regional Energy Star coordinator, Juan Gutierrez. I was super nervous because I was afraid that I would mess up, and also because I was interviewing an EPA coordinator, and he’s a professional! But at the end, the interview ended up well.
Around fifteen minutes before the interview, I talked with my mom, and she gave me some tips. For instance, if your interviewee stops talking for a second, don’t hurry on to the next question. They are willing to give you information, just ask them if they are done talking.
When the interview started, I was a bit nervous and scared. A few minutes before, I was so nervous and pacing around a lot.
At the end, I was so much happier. I was late on the deadline for the interview, and was super nervous that I might not get enough information. But it was a great experience for me, and I definitely enjoyed it.
My grade is starting a project called Capstone. Capstone is where you find a topic, and answer a question about it. You have to make a presentation and present it to people. My topic is global warming, and my main inquiry question is “What is the economic effectiveness of planting trees to reduce global warming and how can it be made more effective?”, and I want to try and find information to answer that question.
I think what was helpful while choosing my question was my teacher. She helped us by making a Zoom meeting for us, and had a Google Doc made for us so that we could find our interests and then she would guide us even more. I am very grateful for that.
I was a little stressed about what my teacher would think about my Google Doc questions, and I was a little scared that my teacher would be disappointed in how my questions were formed. But I forgot that my teacher’s motto was “No Stress”. And at the Zoom meeting, it actually took about 8-10 minutes! I thought it would take about half an hour!
Capstone seems like a very fun project, and I looked forward to it ever since I knew about it. In fourth grade, we got to see the fifth graders’ presentations. It was really interesting, and got me even more excited for Capstone. But now, I realize how much work it is to do the work. That’s what I always realize when I start working on stuff.
I think that Capstone is really fun, and that I’m really happy that my school has this project.
During gym class, we were learning curling. Curling is supposed to be played on ice, but of course, schools wouldn’t be able to have an ice rink. My PE teacher first taught us how to curl in 3rd grade. At first, we first threw beanbags to get used to playing. You have to bring your hand back, lunge, and throw the beanbag at the same time you lunge. Next, we started using blue and red stones and playing against other pairs. When my PE teacher told us to do rock, paper, scissors, and if I won, my partner and I would either choose the color or the hammer. The hammer is when you get the last hit. It’s good because you can knock out the other team’s stone, or you can knock in one of your teammate’s stones into the house. Sometimes, though, I choose color because either the color stone is better, or I just feel like it. Then, we learned how to use a carpet to slide. It was the hardest part of the unit. Sometimes, I’d slide, and then the stone would turn to the right, and would avoid the house. The house is where you want your stone to go in. The closer your stone is to the button (the middle of the house), the better. But everyone only gets one stone each. Sliding on the carpet was easy. But coordinating it while sliding the stone was hard. That’s all the stuff I’ve learned so far. Hopefully, I’ll be able to learn to sweep. Sweeping helps the stone move farther. I really want to continue to learn how to curl, and hopefully, I will. Curling is a good sport, and it teaches you to have good sportsmanship. You should try it, and maybe you’ll like it, too.