Ah! Yes. Albert Einstein. The famous scientist and mathematician who’s last name I can never spell correctly! Yes. Today, I’m going to teach you about Albert Einstein. But not about him. I’m going to talk about his refrigerator.
What?! Albert Einstein invented a refrigerator! Yes. Why yes he did.
The Einstein–Szilard, or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator that has no moving parts, operates at constant pressure, and requires only a heat source to operate. Pretty cool, right?
Did you know? Albert Einstein was fascinated by what happened to a Berlin family who had been killed when a seal in their refrigerator failed and leaked toxic fumes into their home. Pretty strange reason to get fascinated, am I right? (But no one came blame Einstein. He changed our lives!)
Einstein’s refrigerator was patented in the 1930s and doesn’t use greenhouse gases and can be used without electricity! Do we still use it now? I have no idea!
Calculus. You might’ve heard it from someone, you might know it as some kind of math, but you might not know that Newton discovered it!
Many people know Isaac Newton for his discovery about his three law’s of motion, but he also invented calculus! I bet you didn’t know that! It impacted the world when he invented calculus in 1665. We take this for granted nowadays, but what Newton did hundreds of years ago is astonishing, considering now, many people take ages to learn it!
Calculus has uses in physics, chemistry, biology, economics, pure mathematics, all branches of engineering and much more!
Newton’s focus on gravity and laws of motion are linked to his breakthrough in calculus. Newton started by trying to recount the speed of a falling object. When he did, Newton found out that the rate of a falling object increases every second, but there was no currently existing mathematical explanation for this!
Newton immediately started working on this, and he figured out that when using calculus, he could explain it! So this is how Isaac Newton discovered calculus.
Okay. So who is this Ohm guy? His full name is Georg Ohm. (And yes. It’s spelled Georg. That’s not a typo. He has such a strange spelling name in my opinion. No offense Ohm!)
He was born on March 16, 1789, in the university town of Erlangen, Bavaria. His little brother, Martin Ohm, also became a famous mathematician! Johann Wolfgang Ohm, his father, was a locksmith. Maria Elizabeth Beck, his mother, was a daughter of a tailor. She died when Georg was ten.
“Ohm’s Law states that the current passing through a conductor is proportional to the voltage over the resistance,” says ducksters.com.
This may sound very confusing. I’m a little bit confused myself! But it can be written in a simple formula: I = V/R. I is currents in amps. V is voltage in volts. And R is resistance in ohms.
Voltage divided by current is resistance. Resistance times current equals voltage. Just like math. I don’t like math.
Hey! Ohm is not a thing. He’s a person! But an ohm CAN be defined as “an electrical resistance between two points of a conductor,” as said by Wikipedia.
So I guess when you say “ohm”, it could mean a person or a thing! Kinda like a noun. Haha.
Yes. Atoms. But what are atoms? Well, they make up everything! They’re made up of 3 teeny weeny particles: the proton, the neutron, and the electron.
The biggest idea from all time, is that stuff, is made, from atoms.
When the theory was proposed, it sounded absolutely insane! Nobody believed it! Now, nobody would run around shouting “Atoms are just a theory!” But not so long ago, people did do that. And you wanna know who settled it for good? Einstein.
Yes. The amazing scientist and mathematician. Of course it’s Einstein. Atoms had been theorized for a long time by the 20th century, but only when Einstein proved its existence in 1905 with amazing math skills (which I will never have), is when the matter was really settled.
Here’s the story about how the ancient Einstein found out about atoms. But it first started with a botanist.
In 1827, a botanist named Robert Brown was looking at pollen grains in water through a microscope and he noticed that they moved around even when there was no movement in the water to cause it! It was a mystery that lasted a really long time.
Until… In 1905, when Einstein theorized that this incident was caused by as to-be-proven atomic particles actually hitting into the grains of pollen. He wrote some fancy complicated math equation, proving that his theory predicted this motion almost perfectly, so everyone had to agree that yes, tiny bits of matter were really smacking into the pollen, and so atoms, had to exist.
Yes, a very interesting story indeed. I wonder how complicated Einstein’s math equation really was.
On October eighteenth, my team, the New Newtons, had our second launch. I think that our second launch was really good, even though when we checked how high our rocket went, it was lower. I think this happened because two of our fins were wiggly, so we pulled them off and our teacher aide glue it back on, except one side of our rocket had no fins, so the fin placement was really important. Our variable change was our nose cone, because it was really dirty. So we made it pointier on our second nose cone, and I think it turned our really well. On launch two, it was really windy and cold. I think the wind affected the launches for every group. I think that the clinometer readings could be wrong, because it was really chilly, so the clinometer readers might have moved a bit while taking the reading. The hardest part about the whole entire process was that when making the changes, everyone’s decision counted, it wasn’t just my decision, which was pretty hard for me. This is my YouTube video of my model rocket launches.
I did a rocket launch today. I think it was pretty fun. I was nervous that my rocket might blow up, but I put six layers of tape to connect the nosecone with the body. In the beginning, we had to do research. I didn’t like it. It was boring to me. But I did like making the inspiration boards. My team made a logo with our team name, the New Newtons, on it. We put pictures and information that we thought would help us on the launch on our board. A few days before, we had to prepare and learn to use the tools that we’ll be using on the launch day. One of them was the clinometer. The clinometer looked like a protractor with an arrow, a button, and a handle. Mastering the clinometer was hard. I was afraid that I would fail to use the clinometer rightly when the launch day came. There was also another tool: the trundle wheel. The trundle wheel measured the distance between the clinometer readers and the rocket. It was very resourceful. The preparation was tricky, but fun. I had three jobs, but only one for my launch. I was the countdown person for my launch. I was really happy to have that job. But I also was a clinometer reader for the group 1,2,3 Blastoff! and was a data recorder for the group the 3 Engineers. After the launch, I really wanted to do it again. I never wanted to stop. My teacher said that it would take an hour minimum for all the rockets to launch, but instead, it took forty five minutes. I think my group worked really well. We didn’t fight. I had to keep on checking my clipboard to see when I was up. And after I did my first job, I almost forgot that my group’s rocket was going to launch, and nearly missed the launch. But good thing I checked my clipboard. It was very useful. We were allowed to bring our iPhones outside. Some people did. I recorded some of the launches for two people. I observed that even though our rocket was the smallest rocket, we went higher than a taller rocket. So I don’t think that the height of the rocket mattered. But we had eight fins, and I think that helped. I don’t think our rocket needs changes. Maybe more tape?
A seed pod is a pod and inside, it has black seeds. It also has a shell that protects the seeds inside. It grows near the pistil on a flower. It’s sometimes skinny and sometimes fat. The pod is green.
The plant cycle is: First, the seed gets planted. Next, it grows with water and sunlight. When the plant grows leaves, it will use photosynthesis to give itself food. The roots find water underground. When the flower part of the plant grows, pollinators (Bees, butterflies, etc.) come and pollinate the flower. The sticky pollen sticks to the pollinator and when the pollinator goes to the next flower or plant, that’s called pollinating. After that plant gets pollinated, the petals fall of and the plant dies. The seeds stick on the petal and the plant cycle goes all over again.
Yesterday, my group and I picked seed pods from the Wisconsin Fast Plants and today, we opened the seed pods. We got six seeds from the seed pods. Yesterday, we dried the seed pod under a lamp so today, it would be easier for us to open the seed pods. We picked out two big seed pods from our plant. I wonder, What if the Wisconsin Fast Plant is in nature? How will the seeds come out of the pod?
We pollinated our plants for a few days with our fingers and q-tips and now we have a seed pod. At first I thought it was a very long pistil but my teacher told us that it’s a seed pod. We have 11 seed pods. Most of them are tiny though.
For our Controlled quad, it grew a lot. Even though cell 2, 3 and 4 are growing a lot, cell 1 it going to snap soon and are losing leaves. We didn’t break it because a few weeks ago, we thought it was going to snap but it didn’t snap. We have 1 seed pod in cell 3. It’s about 2 centimeters tall. We have many flowers in this quad. For our Manipulated quad, we still watered the dead cells but so far, it’s not doing anything. Cell 3’s tallest measurement is 8 centimeters tall.
I think what will happen next is our Controlled quad’s plants will grow a lot, cell 1 in the Controlled quad won’t snap and cell 3 in the Manipulated quad will still survive.
For our Controlled quad, our tallest plant is about 11 centimeters tall. The leaves and stem is green and the flower is yellow. The most flowers we have are 3. At the beginning, our tallest was probably 2 centimeters tall. Our plants grew about 9 centimeters tall throughout the weeks. I think that the yellow flower is a Buttercup or Sunflower. Some of our plants are going to snap soon.
For our Manipulated quad, cell 1, 2 and 4 is dead. Only cell 3 is surviving. I think this happened because we have really little soil in the Manipulated quad. The tallest measurement for that cell is 13 centimeters tall. It has a tiny flower that is yellow and the stem and leaves are green. In the beginning, the tallest was about 6 centimeters tall. Our plants grew about 7 centimeters tall throughout the weeks.
The outcome are a few yellow flowers. The yellow flowers bloomed from the buds. I think this outcome happened because of the seeds, water and sunlight. Also, photosynthesis.
My class and I are learning about plants in our science unit we’re doing right now. We learned a lot. I am with a group of three girls, including me. Our scientific question for this experiment is: What is the effect of having less soil on plant growth? Our hypothesis is: If we put less soil in the cells, then the plant won’t grow as high everyday because the plant doesn’t have enough soil. Our controlled quad is normal. We are manipulating the soil.
We have two quads. One quad is controlled and one quad is manipulated. Controlled means that everything is the same. Manipulated is where we change one thing in the process. We have four cells in each quad. Everytime we water the cells, we took note of what was happening. For our Controlled quad, the tallest plant is 2 centimeters tall. The color of the plant is green. Our Manipulated quad’s plants are 3 centimeters taller. What we changed in our Manipulated quad was the amount of soil. It turned out to be taller than I thought.