capstone blog post #5

Have you ever wondered what baking really is? I know I have, I love to bake and I really wanted to know what it really is. When I was told that we are going to be doing a capstone project, I got to chose a topic that I was interested in, I knew what I was going to chose. If you are like me I would suggest reading what I have researched to help me answer my question. Baking is science, you may follow a recipe, scientist or bakers can spend days, weeks, months, or even years on trying to perfect the best  mix of ingredients. Once they find that, next they have to find the right oven temperature.


You may notice that most recipes say to heat the oven to 350 degrees fahrenheit. That is because, all ovens are a little different so 350 degrees fahrenheit is usually the perfect temperature for all ovens. The temperature of the oven is really important to get the color, taste and the moisture just right. When the temperature rises, a chemical process called Maillard Reaction, happens when proteins and sugars are combined. Proteins are what makes cookies brown. If you bake it at a too cool temperature, the cookies will dry out. If you bake it at a temperature that is too hot, they will burn. When cookie dough reaches 92 degrees fahrenheit, the butter melts which makes the cookie flat. At 136 degrees fahrenheit, germs will die off. At 144 degrees fahrenheit changes start happening to the protein which comes from the eggs. Water boils at 212 degrees fahrenheit.


You might not notice how easy baking materials are to use. For example, you just push a button and it combines the ingredients or heats the oven. Baking materials have changed a lot over time. Once the thermometer was made in 1714, it changed baking completely. It changed it because now bakers can know the exact temperature of the food or oven. In 1856, the first hand mixer was invented. In 1908, the first electric mixer was invented this was very good because it was easier for bakers to combine ingredients. Things got even easier when the stand mixer was invented in 1919.  The kitchenaid Artisan stand mixer is the top selling mixer in the world it is 4 and ½ quarts. Everyone loves it because it has very high performance. Over time the kitchenaid stand mixer design has gotten smaller so they would fit into home. They used to be sold door to door. It weighed 65 pounds! Kitchenaid stand mixers last for a long time without braking. The original kitchenaid stander color was white now they come in so many different colors. There are so many different attachments that you can bye, for the kitchenaid stand mixer such as the food grinder, the slicer, the shredder, the juicer, the strainer, the pasta roller and the cutter. You can even  make ice cream and baby food with the kitchenaid stand mixer. Over all you can see that the kitchenaid stand mixer has evolved a lot over time. I think the it is a great product. When the convection oven first came out in 1956 it changed the world of baking. It did this by baking the food more evenly with the use of a heating element and a fan.


If you are a baker like me you may think to yourself have recipes changed at all over time? I was wondering that until I did some research. The recipes of the girl scout cookies have changed a lot in the past 96 years. Flavors have also changed the first cookie was a simple sugar cookie. If you use a recipe from a long long time ago you may see that the recipe calls for 30 or more egg you may think to yourself that is so many eggs that is more than two dozen eggs. You are right that is more than you need the reason for this is because the eggs a long long time ago were much smaller than they are now you can fix this be using a ½ or even a ⅓ of what the recipe calls for. Ingredients have also changed because ingredients have been getting imported and exported from other countries. Some examples are vanilla bean, cocoa bean, which makes chocolate, and maize. Maize is used to make flour. Think about how much we use vanilla, flour and cocoa in our baking.


You may think to yourself, how do bakers adjust recipes to accommodate food allergies?  The food allergen labels and Consumer Protection Act of 2009 requires companies to list the top 8 food allergens, which are: milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts. Some common food substitutes for wheat are: barley flour, cornstarch to thicken recipes or rice flour. Substitutes for milk are rice milk, soy milk, almond milk, coconut milk, cashew milk and canola oil in place of butter. Substitutes for eggs are: potato starch and tapioca.


Another thing that people may wonder about is how has the popularity of baking shows on television affected bakery item sales? According to Mintel-Consumer Market Research Companies, couples are trading in elaborate wedding cakes for cupcakes at their weddings. The cupcake trend was a counter-trend to people incorporating healthier options into their diets. Cupcake sales increased following consumer trend of affordable indulgence. Additionally, supermarkets are expanding their bakeries to sell more cupcakes.


That you for listening, I hope you learned more about how has baking evolved over time. I hope you enjoyed.  


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