Democratis came up with atoms. The quintessential cheese part. The dark ages stopped progress. The name of atoms comes from the Greek word atomos.
Csatapults are a form of lever, a first class lever. A first class lever has the fulcrum in the middle and the load and effort on the ends. Catapults are a simple machine, but it’s brother the trebuchet is a complex machine, made up of many simple ones